Skip to content

Status of Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol

November 18, 2011

This post is adapted from the UNFCCC Website.

The Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted at the third session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 3) in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997. In accordance with Article 24, it was open for signature from 16 March 1998 to 15 March 1999 at United Nations Headquarters, New York. By that date the Protocol had received 84 signatures.

Pursuant to Article 22, the Protocol is subject to ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by Parties to the UNFCCC. Parties to the UNFCCC that have not signed the Protocol may accede to it at any time.

The Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005 in accordance with Article 23, that is the ninetieth day after the date on which not less than 55 Parties to the UNFCCC, incorporating Parties included in Annex I which accounted in total for at least 55 % of the total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990 of the Parties included in Annex I, have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

Currently, there are 193 Parties (192 States and 1 regional economic integration organization) to the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC. The total percentage of Annex I Parties emissions is 63.7%.

The list below contains the latest information concerning dates of signature and receipt of instruments of ratification by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, as Depositary of the Kyoto Protocol. The dates in the third column are those of the receipt of the instrument of ratification, acceptance (A), approval (AA) or accession (a). (For an explanation of these legal terms, visit the United Nations Treaty Collection Glossary of terms relating to Treaty actions).

Kyoto, 11 December 1997

Entry into force: 16 February 2005, in accordance with article 25 (1) in accordance with article 25 (3) which reads as follows: “For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Protocol or accedes thereto after the conditions set out in paragraph 1 above for entry into force have been fulfilled, this Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.”.
 
Registration: 16 February 2005, No. 30822.

Status: Signatories: 84. Parties: 192

Note: The Protocol was adopted at the third session of the Conference of the Parties to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (“the Convention”), held at Kyoto (Japan) from 1 to 11 December 1997. The Protocol shall be open for signature by States and regional economic integration organizations which are Parties to the Convention at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 16 March 1998 to 15 March 1999 in accordance with its article 24 (1).

 
Participant Signature Ratification
Acceptance (A)
Accession (a)
Approval (AA)
Entry into force % of emissions
ALBANIA     1 Apr 2005 a 30 Jun 2005  
ALGERIA   16 Feb 2005 a 17 May 2005  
ANGOLA     8 May 2007 a   6 Aug 2007  
ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA 16 Mar 1998   3 Nov 1998 16 Feb 2005  
ARGENTINA 16 Mar 1998 28 Sep 2001 16 Feb 2005  
ARMENIA   25 Apr 2003 a 16 Feb 2005  
AUSTRALIA* 29 Apr 1998 12 Dec 2007 11 Mar 2008 2.1%
AUSTRIA * 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005 0.4%
AZERBAIJAN   28 Sep 2000 a 16 Feb 2005  
BAHAMAS     9 Apr 1999 a 16 Feb 2005  
BAHRAIN   31 Jan 2006 a   1 May 2006  
BANGLADESH   22 Oct 2001 a 16 Feb 2005  
BARBADOS     7 Aug 2000 a 16 Feb 2005  
BELARUS*   26 Aug 2005 a 24 Nov 2005  
BELGIUM* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005 0.8%
BELIZE   26 Sep 2003 a 16 Feb 2005  
BENIN   25 Feb 2002 a 16 Feb 2005  
BHUTAN   26 Aug 2002 a 16 Feb 2005  
BOLIVIA 9 Jul 1998 30 Nov 1999 16 Feb 2005  
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA   16 Apr 2007 a 15 Jul 2007  
BOTSWANA     8 Aug 2003 a 16 Feb 2005  
BRAZIL 29 Apr 1998 23 Aug 2002 16 Feb 2005  
BRUNEI DARUSSALAM   20 Aug 2009 a 18 Nov 2009  
BULGARIA* 18 Sep 1998 15 Aug 2002 16 Feb 2005 0.6%
BURKINA FASO   31 Mar 2005 a 29 Jun 2005  
BURUNDI   18 Oct 2001 a 16 Feb 2005  
CAMBODIA   22 Aug 2002 a 16 Feb 2005  
CAMEROON   28 Aug 2002 a 16 Feb 2005  
CANADA* 29 Apr 1998 17 Dec 2002 16 Feb 2005 3.3%
CAPE VERDE   10 Feb 2006 a 11 May 2006  
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC   18 Mar 2008 a 16 Jun 2008  
CHAD   18 Aug 2009 a 17 Nov 2009  
CHILE 17 Jun 1998 26 Aug 2002 16 Feb 2005  
CHINA 29 May 1998 30 Aug 2002 AA (2) 16 Feb 2005  
COLOMBIA   30 Nov 2001 a 16 Feb 2005  
COMOROS   10 Apr 2008 a   9 Jul 2008  
CONGO   12 Feb 2007 a 13 May 2007  
COOK ISLANDS 16 Sep 1998 27 Aug 2001 16 Feb 2005  
COSTA RICA 27 Apr 1998   9 Aug 2002 16 Feb 2005  
COTE D’IVOIRE   23 Apr 2007 a 22 Jul 2007  
CROATIA* 11 Mar 1999 30 May 2007 28 Aug 2007  
CUBA 15 Mar 1999 30 Apr 2002 16 Feb 2005  
CYPRUS   16 Jul 1999 a 16 Feb 2005  
CZECH REPUBLIC* 23 Nov 1998 15 Nov 2001 AA 16 Feb 2005 1.2%
DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KOREA   27 Apr 2005 a 26 Jul 2005  
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO   23 Mar 2005 a 21 Jun 2005  
DENMARK* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 (3) 16 Feb 2005 0.4%
DJIBOUTI   12 Mar 2002 a 16 Feb 2005  
DOMINICA   25 Jan 2005 a 25 Apr 2005  
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC   12 Feb 2002 a 16 Feb 2005  
ECUADOR 15 Jan 1999 13 Jan 2000 16 Feb 2005  
EGYPT 15 Mar 1999 12 Jan 2005 12 Apr 2005  
EL SALVADOR 8 Jun 1998 30 Nov 1998 16 Feb 2005  
EQUATORIAL GUINEA   16 Aug 2000 a 16 Feb 2005  
ERITREA   28 Jul 2005 a 26 Oct 2005  
ESTONIA* 3 Dec 1998 14 Oct 2002 16 Feb 2005 0.3%
ETHIOPIA   14 Apr 2005 a 13 Jul 2005  
EUROPEAN UNION 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 AA 16 Feb 2005  
FIJI 17 Sep 1998          17 Sep 1998 16 Feb 2005  
FINLAND* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005 0.4%
FRANCE 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 AA 16 Feb 2005 2.7%
GABON   12 Dec 2006 a 12 Mar 2007  
GAMBIA     1 Jun 2001 a 16 Feb 2005  
GEORGIA   16 Jun 1999 a 16 Feb 2005  
GERMANY* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005 7.4%
GHANA   30 May 2003 a 16 Feb 2005  
GREECE* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005 0.6%
GRENADA     6 Aug 2002 a 16 Feb 2005  
GUATEMALA 10 Jul 1998   5 Oct 1999 16 Feb 2005  
GUINEA     7 Sep 2000 a 16 Feb 2005  
GUINEA-BISSAU   18 Nov 2005 a 16 Feb 2005  
GUYANA     5 Aug 2003 a 16 Feb 2005  
HAITI     6 Jul 2005 a   4 Oct 2005  
HONDURAS 25 Feb 1999 19 Jul 2000 16 Feb 2005  
HUNGARY*   21 Aug 2002 a 16 Feb 2005 0.5%
ICELAND *   23 May 2002 a 16 Feb 2005 0.0%
INDIA   26 Aug 2002 a 16 Feb 2005  
INDONESIA 13 Jul 1998   3 Dec 2004   3 Mar 2005  
IRAN (ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF)   22 Aug 2005 a 20 Dec 2005  
IRAQ   28 Jul 2009 a 26 Oct 2009  
IRELAND* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005 0.2%
ISRAEL 16 Dec 1998 15 Mar 2004 16 Feb 2005  
ITALY * 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005 3.1%
JAMAICA   28 Jun 1999 a 16 Feb 2005  
JAPAN * 28 Apr 1998   4 Jun 2002 A 16 Feb 2005 8.5%
JORDAN   17 Jan 2003 a 16 Feb 2005  
KAZAKHSTAN 12 Mar 1999 19 Jun 2009 17 Sep 2009  
KENYA   25 Feb 2005 a 26 May 2005  
KIRIBATI     7 Sep 2000 a 16 Feb 2005  
KUWAIT   11 Mar 2005 a   9 Jun 2005  
KYRGYZSTAN   13 May 2003 a 16 Feb 2005  
LAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC     6 Feb 2003 a 16 Feb 2005  
LATVIA* 14 Dec 1998   5 Jul 2002 16 Feb 2005 0.2%
LEBANON   13 Nov 2006 a 11 Feb 2007  
LESOTHO     6 Sep 2000 a 16 Feb 2005  
LIBERIA     5 Nov 2002 a 16 Feb 2005  
LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA   24 Aug 2006 a 22 Nov 2006  
LIECHTENSTEIN * 29 Jun 1998   3 Dec 2004   3 Mar 2005 0.0%
LITHUANIA * 21 Sep 1998   3 Jan 2003 16 Feb 2005  
LUXEMBOURG * 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005 0.1%
MADAGASCAR   24 Sep 2003 a 16 Feb 2005  
MALAWI   26 Oct 2001 a 16 Feb 2005  
MALAYSIA 12 Mar 1999   4 Sep 2002 16 Feb 2005  
MALDIVES 16 Mar 1998 30 Dec 1998 16 Feb 2005  
MALI 27 Jan 1999 28 Mar 2002 16 Feb 2005  
MALTA 17 Apr 1998 11 Nov 2001 16 Feb 2005  
MARSHALL ISLANDS 17 Mar 1998 11 Aug 2003 16 Feb 2005  
MAURITANIA   22 Jul 2005 a 20 Oct 2005  
MAURITIUS     9 May 2001 a 16 Feb 2005  
MEXICO   9 Jun 1998   7 Sep 2000 16 Feb 2005  
MICRONESIA (FEDERATED STATES OF) 17 Mar 1998 21 Jun 1999 16 Feb 2005  
MONACO 29 Apr 1998 27 Feb 2006 28 May 2006 0.0%
MONGOLIA   15 Dec 1999 a 16 Feb 2005  
MONTENEGRO     4 Jun 2007 a   2 Sep 2007  
MOROCCO   25 Jan 2002 a 16 Feb 2005  
MOZAMBIQUE   18 Jan 2005 a 18 Apr 2005  
MYANMAR   13 Aug 2003 a 16 Feb 2005  
NAMIBIA     4 Sep 2003 a 16 Feb 2005  
NAURU   16 Aug 2001 a 16 Feb 2005  
NEPAL   16 Sep 2005 a 15 Dec 2005  
NETHERLANDS * 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 A (4) 16 Feb 2005 1.2%
NEW ZEALAND 22 May 1998 19 Dec 2002 (5) 16 Feb 2005 0.2%
NICARAGUA   7 Jul 1998 18 Nov 1999 16 Feb 2005  
NIGER 23 Oct 1998 30 Sep 2004 16 Feb 2005  
NIGERIA   10 Dec 2004 a 10 Mar 2005  
NIUE   8 Dec 1998   6 May 1999 16 Feb 2005  
NORWAY * 29 Apr 1998 30 May 2002 16 Feb 2005 0.3%
OMAN   19 Jan 2005 a 19 Apr 2005  
PAKISTAN   11 Jan 2005 a 11 Apr 2005  
PALAU   10 Dec 1999 a 16 Feb 2005  
PANAMA   8 Jun 1998   5 Mar 1999 16 Feb 2005  
PAPUA NEW GUINEA   2 Mar 1999 28 Mar 2002 16 Feb 2005  
PARAGUAY 25 Aug 1998 27 Aug 1999 16 Feb 2005  
PERU 13 Nov 1998 12 Sep 2002 16 Feb 2005  
PHILIPPINES 15 Apr 1998 20 Nov 2003 16 Feb 2005  
POLAND * 15 Jul 1998 13 Dec 2002 16 Feb 2005 3.0%
PORTUGAL * 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 AA 16 Feb 2005 0.3%
QATAR   11 Jan 2005 a 11 Apr 2005  
REPUBLIC OF KOREA 25 Sep 1998   8 Nov 2002 16 Feb 2005  
REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA   22 Apr 2003 a 16 Feb 2005  
ROMANIA *   5 Jan 1999 19 Mar 2001 16 Feb 2005 1.2%
RUSSIAN FEDERATION * 11 Mar 1999 18 Nov 2004 16 Feb 2005 17.4%
RWANDA   22 Jul 2004 a 16 Feb 2005  
SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS     8 Apr 2008 a   7 Jul 2008  
SAINT LUCIA 16 Mar 1998 20 Aug 2003 16 Feb 2005  
SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES 19 Mar 1998 31 Dec 2004 31 Mar 2005  
SAMOA 16 Mar 1998 27 Nov 2000 16 Feb 2005  
SAN MARINO   28 April 2010 27 Jul
2010
 
SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE   25 Apr 2008 a 24 Jul 2008  
SAUDI ARABIA   31 Jan 2005 a   1 May 2005  
SENEGAL   20 Jul 2001 a 16 Feb 2005  
SERBIA   19 Oct 2007 a 17 Jan 2008  
SEYCHELLES 20 Mar 1998 22 Jul 2002 16 Feb 2005  
SIERRA LEONE   10 Nov 2006 a 8 Feb 2007  
SINGAPORE   12 Apr 2006 a 11 Jul 2006  
SLOVAKIA * 26 Feb 1999 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005 0.4%
SLOVENIA * 21 Oct 1998   2 Aug 2002 16 Feb 2005  
SOLOMON ISLANDS 29 Sep 1998 13 Mar 2003 16 Feb 2005  
SOMALIA   26 July 2010 24 Oct
2010
 
SOUTH AFRICA   31 Jul 2002 a 16 Feb 2005  
SPAIN * 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005 1.9%
SRI LANKA     3 Sep 2002 a 16 Feb 2005  
SUDAN     2 Nov 2004 a 16 Feb 2005  
SURINAME   25 Sep 2006 a 24 Dec 2006  
SWAZILAND   13 Jan 2006 a 13 Apr 2006  
SWEDEN * 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005 0.4%
SWITZERLAND * 16 Mar 1998   9 Jul 2003 16 Feb 2005 0.3%
SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC   27 Jan 2006 a 27 Apr 2006  
TAJIKISTAN   29 Dec 2008 a 29 Mar 2009  
THAILAND   2 Feb 1999 28 Aug 2002 16 Feb 2005  
THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA   18 Nov 2004 a 16 Feb 2005  
TIMOR-LESTE   14 Oct 2008 a 12 Jan 2009  
TOGO     2 Jul 2004 a 16 Feb 2005  
TONGA   14 Jan 2008 a 13 Apr 2008  
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO   7 Jan 1999 28 Jan 1999 16 Feb 2005  
TUNISIA   22 Jan 2003 a 16 Feb 2005  
TURKEY *   28 May 2009 a 26 Aug 2009  
TURKMENISTAN 28 Sep 1998 11 Jan 1999 16 Feb 2005  
TUVALU 16 Nov 1998 16 Nov 1998 16 Feb 2005  
UGANDA   25 Mar 2002 a 16 Feb 2005  
UKRAINE * 15 Mar 1999 12 Apr 2004 16 Feb 2005  
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES   26 Jan 2005 a 26 Apr 2005  
UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND * 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 (6) (7) 16 Feb 2005 4.3%
UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA   26 Aug 2002 a 16 Feb 2005  
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA * 12 Nov 1998      
URUGUAY 29 Jul 1998   5 Feb 2001 16 Feb 2005  
UZBEKISTAN 20 Nov 1998 12 Oct 1999 16 Feb 2005  
VANUATU   17 Jul 2001 a 16 Feb 2005  
VENEZUELA   18 Feb 2005 a 19 May 2005  
VIET NAM   3 Dec 1998 25 Sep 2002 16 Feb 2005  
YEMEN   15 Sep 2004 a 16 Feb 2005  
ZAMBIA   5 Aug 1998   7 Jul 2006   5 Oct 2006  
ZIMBABWE   30 Jun 2009 a 28 Sep 2009  

* indicates an Annex I Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

End Note:

(1) For the purpose of entry into force of the [Convention/Protocol], any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by member States of that Organization.

(2) In a communication received on 30 August 2002, the Government of the People’s Republic of China informed the Secretary-General of the following:

In accordance with article 153 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China of 1990 and article 138 of the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China of 1993, the Government of the People’s Republic of China decides that the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall provisionally not apply to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.

Further, in a communication received on 8 April 2003, the Government of the People’s Republic of China notified the Secretary-General of the following:

“In accordance with the provisions of Article 153 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China of 1990, the Government of the People’s Republic of China decides that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall apply to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change continues to be implemented in the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall not apply to the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China until the Government of China notifies otherwise.”

In a communication received on 14 January 2008, the Government of the People’s Republic of China notified the Secretary-General of the following: In accordance with Article 138 of the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, the Government of the People’s Republic of China decides that the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall apply to the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.

(3) With a territorial exclusion to the Faroe Islands.

(4)
For the Kingdom in Europe.

(5) With the following declaration:
“…..consistent with the constitutional status of Tokelau and taking into account the commitment of the Government of New Zealand to the development of self-government for Tokelau through an act of self-determination under the Charter of the United Nations, this ratification shall not extend to Tokelau unless and until a Declaration to this effect is lodged by the Government of New Zealand with the Depositary on the basis of appropriate consultation with that territory.”

(6) By a communication received on 27 March 2007, the Government of Argentina notified the Secretary-General of the following:

The Argentine Republic objects to the extension of the territorial application to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 11 December 1997 with respect to the Malvinas Islands, which was notified by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Depositary of the Convention on 7 March 2007.

The Argentine Republic reaffirms its sovereignty over the Malvinas Islands, the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands and the surrounding maritime spaces, which are an integral part of its national territory, and recalls that the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolutions 2065 (XX), 360 (XXVIII), 31/49, 37/9, 38/12, 39/6, 40/21, 41/40, 42/19 and 43/25, which recognize the existence of a dispute over sovereignty and request the Governments of the Argentine Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to initiate negotiations with a view to finding the means to resolve peacefully and definitively the pending problems between both countries, including all aspects on the future of the Malvinas Islands, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

(7) On 4 April 2006, the Government of the United Kingdom informed the Secretary-General that the Protocol shall apply to the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Isle of Man. On 2 January 2007: in respect of Gibraltar. On 7 March 2007: in respect of Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas) and the Bailiwick of Jersey.

Advertisements
No comments yet

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: